is the doctrine he was wont to teach,
How divers persons witness in each man.
Three souls which make up one soul: first, to wit:
A soul of each and all the bodily parts,
Seated therein, which works, and is what does,
And has the use of earth, and ends the man
Downward; but, tending upward for advice,
Grows into, and again is grown into
By the next soul, which, seated in the brain,
Useth the first with its collected use,
And feeleth, thinketh, willeth, is what Knows:
Which, duly tending upward in its turn,
Grows into, and again is grown into
By the last soul, that uses both the first,
Subsisting whether they assist or no.
And, constituting man's self, is what Is -
And leans upon the former, makes it play,
As that played off the first: and, tending up,
Holds, is upheld by, God, and ends the man
Upward in that dread point of intercourse,
Nor needs a place, for it returns to Him.
What Does, what Knows, what Is; three souls one man.
again, students of Oriental philosophy must be reminded
of the suggestive idea of a multiplicity of selves-as
if each self were by no means individual, but were compounded
of a thronging multitude of scarcely reconcilable selves,
inherited from the ages, warring together for the inward
mastery. And it seems, indeed, as if such a doctrine
might have at least an equal validity with our own usual
orthodox postulate, the doctrine of spiritual individuality.
It scarcely seems extravagant to imagine the violently
opposing forces in our personality are more or less
distinct selves; it is not the least logical way to
account for our inconsistencies, surely. Our study of
heredity speaks of differing strains in our nature,
one strain from this ancestor, another strain from that.
And considering the unlimited number of ancestors each
man has, you see that any one of them could scarcely
hope for a complete occupation of the new person. They
must still be content to struggle for momentary control
of the machinery which goes by the name of John or Henry.
James in his Psychology, in dealing with the
self, treats of the different "Mes" present
in a personality, their conflict, scope and rivalry-the
material me, the social me, the spiritual me, a threefold
division like Browning's. But Dr. Lidis has pursued
the subject to its utmost limits, hunting the self from
every nook and cranny of its human tenement, with a
searching analysis Hawthorne might have envied. And
his method of procedure has been by means of suggestion.
Beginning with established fact that there exists, in
abnormal cases, a secondary self, a sort of rudimentary
personality, unknown to the higher conscious personality,
which can be elicited and developed by hypnotic means,
he proceeded to establish the further fact that just
such a sub-conscious personality exists in the normal
person as well. The normal man is continually exposed
to thousands of impressions from the outside world;
many he must forget entirely, some make a vivid mark
on his superior consciousness and live in his memory.
But the sub-conscious personality is awake, too, to
these same multitudinous impressions from the outside
world, and apparently stores them away for future reproduction
at some unexpected juncture, to the surprise, perhaps,
of the conscious intelligence. We store away our impressions
at unawares, as if the master spirit were somehow served
by diligent, capable gnomes, faithful, but irresponsible,
and often unruly.
series of experiments, quite apart from anything like
hypnotism, in which Dr. Lidis established the suggestibility
of normal persons, is ingenious and instructive, and
leads him to the conclusion, "Man is a suggestible
animal." The most striking law he enunciates, as
a result of his investigations, is this:
suggestibility varies as indirect suggestion, and inversely
as direct suggestion;" to this is also added the
converse law, "Abnormal suggestibility varies as
direct suggestion, and inversely as indirect suggestion."
is common to fancy that our senses alone are responsible
for the furtive acquisition of knowledge, and that they
work independently to that end. We should be likely
therefore to attribute no sort of real personality to
the subconscious perception; but we should be wrong,
it seems. "The subconsciousness is not an unconscious
physiological automatism; it is a secondary consciousness,
a secondary self."
cases are quoted, well authenticated, in which the secondary
self has appeared in a person, grown and developed,
and alternated with the original self in possession
of the senses and faculties of the person. And, strangely
enough, this secondary self is usually aware of the
existence of the primary self, and even knows it thoroughly,
sometimes disliking it, sometimes being fond of it.
The primary self, on the contrary, has no knowledge
of the second personality, and remembers nothing whatever
of those periods when it was ousted from its own home
to give place to the uncanny intruder. The subwaking
self is an ever-present, unseen, sleepless servitor,
always subsisting on the normal state, noting things
which the conscious self knows nothing of, ready the
assume control the moment the dominant self resigns.
is something awesome and terrifying in the knowledge
that we have this inescapable companion at our side
every minute, who knows our every act, and yet whom
we do not know. And the solemnity of the fact is all
the greater when we realize the primitive character
of that self. "The subwaking self," says Dr.
Lidis, "is extremely credulous, it lacks all sense
of the true and rational. 'Two and two make five?' 'Yes.'
Anything is accepted if sufficiently emphasized by the
hypnotizer..I should like to point out the extreme servility
and cowardliness of that self. Show hesitation, and
it will show fight; command authoritatively, and it
will obey slavishly." And again: "The subwaking
self is devoid of all morality; it will steal without
the least scruple; it will poison, it will stab; it
will assassinate its best friends. When completely cut
off from the waking person it is precluded from conscience.
The subwaking self lacks all personality and individuality;
it is absolutely servile; it works according to no maxims;
it has no moral law, no law at all. To be a law unto
one's self, the chief and essential characteristic of
personality, is just the very trait the subwaking self
lacks. The subwaking self has no will; it is blown hither
and thither by all sorts of incoming suggestions. It
is essentially a brutal self."
there is a further aspect of these investigations of
Dr. Lidis's which everyone must recognize as being of
the profoundest practical importance. I mean his exposition
of social suggestibility. If man is a suggestible animal,
individually open to arbitrary influences and the will
of another, what must he be in a mass? The fickleness
of mobs is proverbial, and the mob is only the subconscious
crowd. To deal with a crowd of orderly persons, one
must use the same rational means as in dealing with
an individual. But once let the slumbering mob, which
is latent in every crowd, be aroused, and reason avails
no longer; one may make the most vicious and irrational
suggestion to it, and so long as the suggestion be direct
and graceful enough it will be obeyed. To hypnotize
the crowd, that is the sole object of the demagogue.
Once converted into a mob by the fatuous trick of his
oratory, they can be molded to his will. In a crowd
the voluntary movements of an individual are restricted;
he loses his independence; he is merged in the mass;
he is no longer master of himself; only his lower, more
rudimentary nature has play and scope.
in this connection there are the gravest considerations
for us in this country, calculated to make the most
sanguine reflect somewhat forebodingly on the future.
The irrational fevers and mental epidemics which sweep
over the country from time to time are only so many
instances of mob suggestibility. Sometimes they are
comparatively harmless fads, but oftener they are full
of harm. We even speak of them as "crazes"-the
Trilby craze, the Klondike craze, the silver craze.
The ordinary revival in religion is an instance of the
pernicious evil of playing upon the subconscious mob
element existing in crowds. While in our political conventions
one sees that same unhappy subconscious social self
unleashed and raving.
student of politics can ill afford to skip Dr. Lidis's
Psychology of Suggestions as the student of human